|Damping off in tobacco plants caused by rhizoctonia solani (left and right) and Sclerotinia rot (middle)|
Moniliopsis aderholdii Ruhland 1908
Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus with a wide host range and worldwide distribution. It is one cause of the condition known as damping off, which is a cause of death of seedlings in agriculture. It is also responsible for black scurf and stem and stolon canker in potatoes and wire stem, a disease of cabbage, cauliflower and related plants that is similar to damping off but attacks older seedlings and produces a constricted, wiry stem. Also crown rot in carrots.
Causes brown, irregular cankers to develop on the lower stems, lesions can enlarge and girdle the stem. Injury is more common during warm weather.
Plants that are not severely damaged by rhizoctonia solani may recover in the field.
Fumigation of plant beds will eradicate seedling pathogens, such as rhizoctonia solani; however, fumigated soil can become reinfested if pathogen-infested field soil is moved to fumigated areas. For cabbage and broccoli, quintozene fungicide can be used in the transplant water at a rate of 6-8 T/gal (3/4 pint/plant). This fungicide is not registered for use in turnips or kale.
Choose a fertile, well-drained site for the plant bed. Poor drainage favors seedling disease. Avoid excessive amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Succulent plants are more susceptible to infection. Seed brassicas when the soil temperature reaches 21°C (69°F) and seed as shallowly as possible so that germination and emergence are rapid. Discard transplant seedlings that show symptoms of wire stem. Avoid banking or throwing soil up around plants during field cultivation. Harvest cabbage heads early. Cabbage leaves become more susceptible the longer they stand in the field.
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|Diseases||Bacterial leaf spot of endive · Downy mildew · Fusarium wilt · Grey mould · Powdery mildew · Rhizoctonia solani · Rust · Septoria leaf spot of lemon balm · Verticillium wilt|
|Pests||Aphid · Cabbage whitefly · Capsid bug · Celery fly · Leaf miner · Leafhopper · Red spider mite · Shore fly · Silver Y moth · Slug|
|Adverse conditions||Bruising · Frost · Greening · Magnesium deficiency · Nitrogen deficiency · Oedema · Potassium deficiency · Soft tubers · Spindly sprouts · Split roots · Sun scald|
|Diseases||Alfalfa mosaic virus · Andean potato latent virus · Bacterial soft rot · Black dot · Blackleg · Black potato blight · Alternaria brown spot · Common scab · Dry rot · Early blight · Fusarium wilt · Gangrene · Late blight · Potato deforming rust · Potato leaf roll virus · Potato spindle tuber viroid · Potato virus Y · Potato yellow dwarf virus · Potato yellow vein virus · Powdery scab · Rhizoctonia solani · Ring rot · Septoria leaf spot · Silver scurf · Skin spot · Southern blight · Southern bacterial wilt · Tobacco ringspot virus · Tomato spotted wilt virus · Verticillium wilt · Wart disease|
|Pests||Aphid · Capsid bug · Keeled slug · Leaf miner (Pea leafminer) · Potato cyst nematode · Potato psyllid · Potato rot nematode · Root-knot nematode · Rosy rustic moth · Wireworm|
|Adverse conditions||Blossom drop · Blossom end rot · Catfacing · Dry set · Fasciation · Frost · Greenback · Hollow fruit · Leaf roll · Leggy plants · Magnesium deficiency · Nitrogen deficiency · Oedema · Phosphorus deficiency · Potassium deficiency · Split fruit · Sun scald · Tomato stem primordia|
|Pests||Aphid · Cabbage whitefly · Flea beetle · Greenhouse whitefly · Leaf miner (Tomato leafminer, Vegetable leafminer) · Potato cyst nematode · Potato psyllid · Root-knot nematode · Slug · Thrips (Eastern flower thrips)|